MRI Approach

Solution Focused Approach

  • George, C. M. (2008). Solution-focused therapy: Strength-based counseling for children with social phobia. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 47, 144.
Article Synopsis: Awaiting Interlibrary Loan GS

Article Synopsis: This article focuses on brief solution-focused therapy with parents and adolescents with ADHD. It illustrates an emphasis of the co-construction of solutions from conversations between a school social worker and the client. The school social worker's questioned the client to recognize prior successes, solutions and visualize future solutions. BV
Article Synopsis: A quasi-experiment of 239 children who were referred to counseling by their school, with pretest/post test design compared treatment engagement in a solution-focused therapy group and a "treatment-as-usual" group.. The solution-focused therapy group had better treatment engagement; however, no statistically significant differences were found between groups on perceptions of child behaviors from either parents or child reports. BV

Article synopsis: Coming soon BV

Article Synopsis: Synopsis coming soon. BV

  • Kvarme, L. G., Aabø, L. S., & Saeteren, B. (2013). "I Feel I Mean Something to Someone:" Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Support Groups for Bullied Schoolchildren. Educational Psychology In Practice, 29(4), 416-431.

Article Synopsis:
The aim of this study was to investigate how bullied schoolchildren experience solution-focused brief therapy support groups, and to examine how members of the support group experience their participation in the group. The participants consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12–13 years, three of whom were bullied. There were 18 girls and 1 boy. 3 of the girls received support from the group and 16 children participated in the support groups. The children were from different classes in two different schools in Norway.Six individual interviews were conducted with the bullied children and three focus group interviews were held with the support groups. The individual interviews explored the bullied children’s experiences of having a support group. The focus group interviews were used to explore the other children’s experiences of their participation in the support groups. It was found that the bullied children reported that the bullying stopped after they received help from the support group and the improvements remained after three months. Their daily lives at school changed and they felt safer and happier and made friends. Members of the support groups reported that they believed they were doing a meaningful job in helping the victims. Three main themes were identified in the analysis of the individual interviews: from frightening to safe; from isolation to friendship; and from being invisible to being visible. A minority reported that they experienced some challenges with other students after being a help to the bullying victim.

Narrative Therapy Approach

Article Synopsis: This article discusses a Narrative approach to externalize the Virus X that interferes with the preferred way parents want to interact with their children. The authors were able to work with parents in a child behavior management group and create change to empower the parents against Virus X. BV

Article Synopsis: This paper outlines a treatment approach for children and families exposed to violence that aims at decreasing traumatic stress symptoms in children and increasing emotional regulation. Using an Internalized Other Interview within a narrative framework, the child and therapist engage in a reconstructive process to heal the narrative disruption brought about by violence and trauma. It involves a reprocessing of traumatic material and a reworking of damaged attachments between parent and child. BV

Article Synopsis: This article focuses on Narrative therapy at a walk-in clinic with children experiencing anxiety. It demonstrates a clear guideline for narrative questions outlined and illustrated by transcripts from sessions. BV

Article Synopsis: This article illustrates the incorporation of narrative therapy with adolescents and adults with language-literacy deficits to increase self-esteem and self-efficacy. Sample vignettes illustrate key points of how Narrative therapy could be integrated with speech and language therapy to address concomitant factors such as decreased self-esteem.

  • Cashin, A., Browne, G., Bradbury, J., & Mulder, A. (2013). The effectiveness of narrative therapy with young people with autism. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 26, 32–41.

Article Synopsis:
Cashin, et. Al (2013) was attempting to empirically determining whether narrative therapy is effective in helping young people with autism who present with emotional and behavioral problems. Participants were selected if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a)the participant was aged 10–16 years; (b) the accompanying parent presented documented clinical diagnosis of autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder by a clinical psychologist, child psychiatrist, pediatrician, or mental health nurse practitioner; (c) the participant was proficient in English; and (d) the participant has a participating parent. The treatment consisted of five1 hour sessions of narrative therapy conducted over 10 weeks. Saliva samples were also taken one day prior to the first session and one day prior to the last session. The study used the parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures were the Kessler-10 Scale of Psychological Distress (K-10),the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and a stress biomarker, the salivary cortisol to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)ratio. Significant improvement in psychological distress identified through the K-10 was demonstrated. Significant improvement was identified on the Emotional Symptoms Scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The research found that narrative therapy has merit as an intervention with young people with autism.

  • Ikonomopoulos, J., Smith, R. L., & Schmidt, C. (2015). Integrating narrative therapy within rehabilitative programming for incarcerated adolescents. Journal of Counseling & Development, 93, 460–470.

Article Synopsis:
In this article, the research being conducted was to find out wat is the degree of efficacy for a rehabilitative program that integrates narrative therapy for reducing clinically relevant psychological symptoms among youth incarcerated at a juvenile justice boot camp facility. The participants in this study were eight adolescents (between the ages of 15 to 17 years) enrolled in a juvenile justice boot camp facility located in the southern United States. Participants were two girls and six boys with a mean age of 16. Participants were of Hispanic ethnic identities. The participants were selected based on the cutoff scores identifying clinically significant needs from the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument at intake, which includes measurement across scales for alcohol and drugs, angry–irritable, depressed–anxious, suicide ideation, thought disturbance, and gender-specific traumatic experiences (Ikonomopoulos, J., Smith, R. L., & Schmidt, C. , 2015). Participants received 4 to 10 sessions of individual narrative therapy using the description and progression of sessions outlined in Maps of Narrative Practice written by Michael White, as well as other narrative therapy techniques. Treatment was evaluated by using A-B and A-B-A single-case research designs using scores on the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) as an outcome measure. The BSI is intended to identify self-reported clinically relevant psychological symptoms in adolescents and adults. Narrative therapy appeared to be very efficacious for reducing participant scores among five of the eight participants. The results of this single-case research design found that integrating narrative therapy into existing rehabilitative programming was associated with generally improved scores for interpersonal sensitivity and an overall improvement in scores for participants with depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsion, and psychoticism, as evidenced by scores on the BSI. Narrative therapy may not be appropriate for all youth, such as those with low intellectual abilities, those who have low verbal comprehension, or those who want to tell stories to glorify delinquent behavior and uphold the preferred identity of a criminal.

  • Yoosefi Looyeh, M., Kamali, K., Ghasemi, A., & Tonawanik, P. (2014). Treating social phobia in children through group narrative therapy. Arts In Psychotherapy, 41(1).

Article Synopsis:
This study was created to explore the effectiveness of group narrative therapy in treating the symptoms of social phobia among boys. The participants of this study were 24 boys, ages 10-11, with a confirmed diagnosis of a social phobia and they were randomly selected from 4 different geographic districts in Tehran/Iran. The Children Symptoms Inventory checklist data were used to determine if participants met the cut-off score criteria for potential diagnosis of social phobia. Qualifying criteria for participation in the study were that the child: (a) did not have a prior history of treatment for social phobia, (b) met the Children Symptom Inventory symptoms cut-off score for a potential diagnosis of social phobia and (c) had a confirmed clinical diagnosis of social phobia. The participants were randomly separated into two groups, controlled and the treatment group. The treatment group received fourteen 90-min sessions of narrative therapy twice a week. A behavior rating checklist, Children Symptoms Inventory (CSI-4), was used to screen and to measure pre and post treatment severity of social phobia symptoms. The results showed significant differences in the symptom scores for the treatment group and controlled group. An important factor contributing to the effectiveness of group narrative therapy with children with social phobia is the process of story-telling; story-making in the group provided a safe, non-threatening and entertaining structure for the sessions.

Collaborative Therapy Approach