MRI Approach





Solution Focused Approach

  • Baijesh, A. R. (2015). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Social Anxiety Disorder. IJSFP International Journal of Solution-Focused Practices, 2(7). doi:10.14335/ijsfp.v2i1.16

Article abstract: The author demonstrates how Solution Focused Therapy can be a useful form of treatment for those with social anxiety disorder. 15 adolescents with social anxiety disorder were in a 12 week treatment program of Solution Focused Brief Therapy. The study compared the efficacy of adolescents diagnosed with social anxiety disorder that were in a Cognitive Behavorial treatment program.The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A ) along with The General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) were the measurements utilized in the study. The 12 sessions of SFBT were completed over a 3 month basis.The results showed a significant improvement of the participants when utilizing SFBT. This article suggests that SFBT may be beneficial when working with clients with social anxiety disorder.


  • Bor, R., Parker, J., & Papadopoulos, L. (2001). Brief, solution-focused initial treatment sessions for clients with a fear of flying.Counseling Psychology Review, 16,32-40.
Article abstract: Outlines a brief approach to psychological treatment that may benefit a sizable portion of fearful flyers as an alternative to the traditionally used method of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The authors estimate from their own practice that approximately 50 per cent of clients who seek psychological treatment for fear of flying do not require the full complement of standard CBT interventions (e.g. desensitization, simulated or actual flights) and benefit sufficiently from core interventions (e.g. cognitive restructuring, realistic threat appraisal and coping strategies for dealing with symptoms of anxiety and panic disorder). The authors therefore propose a synthesis of CBT and systemic and solution-focused therapy as a treatment that is not unduly costly or demanding on resources, and can be offered in busy settings such as travel health clinics and GP surgeries, and by counseling psychologists and air crew. The authors conclude that it is possible to provide a protracted course of treatment and in some cases single session interventions, especially with clients who are motivated to overcoming their problem and whose problem is not presented as intractable during the assessment. GS

  • Fang-Ru, Y., Shuand-Luo, Z., & Wen-Feng, L. (2005).Comparative study of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) combined with Paroxetine in the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder,Chinese Mental Health, 19,288-290.
Article synopsis: Objectives: To evaluate the effect of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) combined with paroxetine in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Methods: 60 outpatients who met CCMD-3 criteria for OCD were randomly divided into experiment group (SFBT plus Paroxetine, n=30) and control group (paroxetine only, n =30) and treated for 10 weeks. The efficacy was assessed with Yale-Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Rating Scale (Y-BOCS) at the end of week 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10. Results: The Y-BOCS score in two groups were significantly decreased 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the Y-BOCS score in experiment group was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusions: SFBT combined with paroxetine and paroxetine have significant efficacy in the treatment of OCD, and SFBT combined with paroxetine has better effect than paroxetine alone. GS

  • Griffith, S. C. (2007). School-based play therapy and solution-oriented brief counseling for children in crisis: Case of Melinda, age 6. In N. Webb-Boyd (Ed.), Play therapy with children in crisis: Individual, group, and family treatment (pp.322-342). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Article abstract: (from the chapter) The relationship between child and parents provides the building blocks for a child's lifelong development. When it is well built, the relationship provides a sturdy foundation and resiliency for future challenges. Even so, a child may run up against situations in which confusion and misunderstandings overwhelm his or her coping abilities, especially when the parents are also showing confusion. When this confusion grows into anxiety and interferes with the child's willingness to attend school, the school counselor may be brought in as a first line of intervention. This chapter discusses the use of solution-oriented brief counseling (SOBC) in helping children in crisis, with special attention to those aspects of SOBC that make it especially compatible with play therapy. The efficacy of this combined approach is demonstrated in a detailed case example. The case presented in this chapter involves a youngster who initially seemed to cope with her mother's serious illness, but whose situation later developed into a crisis following the deaths of other extended family members. These experiences escalated into high anxiety and school avoidance before the problem was brought to light and intervention was sought at school. Because of the child's age, play therapy was the preferred mode of relating. A solution-oriented intervention model was incorporated to empower the youngster to cope and to move forward both at home and at school. GS

  • George, C. M. (2008). Solution-focused therapy: Strength-based counseling for children with social phobia. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education, and Development, 47,144.
Article synopsis:Solution-focused therapy is proposed as an effective strength-based model for children with social phobia. Social phobia is described along with the etiology and prevailing treatment approaches. A case illustration demonstrates the application of solution-focused therapy with a child who experienced social phobia. Implications for counseling and recommendations for research are discussed.

  • Joutsenniemi, K., Lindfors, O., Laaksonen, M., Haaramon, P., Knekt, P. (2009). P03-52 Prediction of demographic factors on the outcome of short- and long-term psychotherapy, European Psychiatry, 24, 1051.
Article abstract: Background: Demographic factors have been shown to predict the outcome of short-term psychotherapy in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. So far, however, information on the prediction for long- term therapy is missing. To be able to choose an optimal psychotherapy length for the patient, it is essential to know, which demographic factors predict different outcome in short- and long-term therapy. Aim: To compare the prediction of demographic factors on changes in psychiatric symptoms in short- and long-term psychotherapy. Methods: In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 psychiatric outpatients, aged 20-46 years, and suffering from depressive or anxiety disorders, were randomly assigned to short-term therapy (short-term psycho-dynamic psychotherapy or solution-focused therapy combined) or long-term psycho-dynamic psychotherapy. The demographic factors (i.e. age, gender, education, income, and living arrangement) were assessed at baseline by a questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Check List, Global Severity Index (SCL-90-GSI) at baseline and 7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Results: Demographic factors were found to predict symptom development during follow-up irrespective of baseline symptom level. Female gender, being aged 25 or more, living with a spouse/partner, high education, and medium level personal income predicted benefiting sufficiently from short-term therapy, whereas being aged under 25, medium education, and living with other(s) than a partner or child(ren) predicted the need of long-term therapy. Conclusions: Demographic factors may be a useful tool in the selection of patients for short- and long term therapy. GS

  • Kim, J. S. (2008). Examining the effectiveness of solution-focused brief therapy: A meta-analysis, Research on Social Work Practice, 18,107-116.
Article synopsis: The purpose of this article is to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT) through a systematic review using meta-analytic procedures. Since the 22 studies analyzed by the author utilized different both experimental and quasi-experimental designs, a meta-analysis of the multiple studies provides a stable and meaningful measure of the overall effectiveness of SFBT. Primary outcome studies, from 1998 to 2005, that employed at least one of the core components of SFBT, as described by founders and eminent SFBT practitioners, and utilized a comparison or control group in their research design to examine the effectiveness of SFBT were included in the meta-analysis. Unpublished dissertations and unpublished studies were also used in order to increase sample size and statistical power and decrease publication bias. The meta-analytic review found that SFBT demonstrated small but positive treatment effects favoring the SFBT group on outcome measures. The author presents a good discussion and possible explanation for SFBT’s small effect size results, including the differences contributed by tightly controlled, efficacy studies (more common in psychology) and real-world, clinical settings (more common in social work).

  • Knekt, P., Lindfors, O., Laaksonen, M. A., Raitasalo, R., Haaramo, P., & Jarvikoski, A. (2008). Effectiveness of short-term and long-term psychotherapy on work ability and functional capacity: A randomized clinical trial on depressive and anxiety disorders, Journal of Affective Disorders, 107, 95-106.
Article synopsis: This study examines the effectiveness of different therapies (two short-term therapies and one long-term therapy) on work ability of 326 outpatients with psychiatric disorders. The participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: long-term dynamic psychotherapy, short-term dynamic psychotherapy, and solution focused therapy and followed for 3 years from the start of treatment. The results indicated no differences in work-ability scores between solution-focused therapy and short term psycho-dynamic therapy. Short term therapies were more effective in improving work- ability than long-term therapy at the 7 month follow up. At the 3 year follow-up, long-term psycho-dynamic psychotherapy was slightly more effective than the short-term therapies. No differences in work ability were noted between short-term psycho-dynamic psychotherapy and solution-focused therapy at 3 year follow-up. All treatments were manualized and therapist adherence to treatment was monitored. GS

  • Nunnally, E. (1993). Solution focused therapy. In R. A. Wells & V. J. Gianetti (Eds.), Casebook of the brief psychotherapies (pp. 271-286). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Article abstract: (from the chapter) [describes] the structure and underlying premises of solution focused [family] therapy / solution focused therapy can be viewed as an action system composed of three elements: (1) exception behaviors, (2) problem behaviors, and (3) intervention behaviors / the focus of a therapist's assessment is on goal and other exceptions, not on origins of the problem / [presents] three case examples [involving this practice model] / in Case 1 [of a 43-yr-old female with a 10-yr history of anxiety] the focus is largely on . . . recent exceptions / in Case 2 [of a Finnish couple experiencing a marital conflict] the focus is on past exceptions / in Case 3 [of a family presenting with a problem of an intense conflict between father and 16-yr-old daughter] focus of intervention varies across family members: expanding the teenager's ongoing exception behaviors and changing the parents' behaviors to increase and support the teenager's exception behaviors. GS

  • Pomeroy, E. C., Green, D. L., & Van Laningham, L. (2002). Couples who care: The effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV serodiscordant couples, Research on Social Work Practice, 12, 238-252.
Article synopsis: This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a psychoeducational group intervention for HIV/AIDS, serodiscordant, heterosexual couples using quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design to examine marital satisfaction, anxiety, and depression in participant couples. Results indicated that the psychoeducational group intervention had strong effects on increasing marital satisfaction and moderate effects in reducing anxiety and depression among heterosexual, serodiscordant couples. The intervention used with the psychoeducational group utilized components from both solution-focused and cognitive behavioral modalities of therapy; thus, is a drawback when trying to examine the effectiveness of one particular modality of therapy in specific cases. GS

  • Sprinks, D. W. (2008). A solution focused family checkup as a positive intervention in family therapy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 68 (7-B), 4847
Article abstract: This study seeks to examine the efficacy of a two-session family checkup, using a Solution Focused approach as a positive intervention for interrupting family dysfunction that is both ecologically and psychologically acceptable to families in distress, who otherwise might not seek family therapy. Families and marriages currently suffering distress are often unable to afford professional services due to ecological issues such as transportation, child care, time commitment to therapy, and previous negative therapeutic experiences. Additionally many persons are averse to seeking counseling or therapy due to the psychological stigmatization of having to attend to professional guidance and/or assistance. Using a convenience sample of varied family make-ups, participants completed the Family Assessment Measure III, the Martial Satisfaction Inventory-Revised, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale at a time one and time two intervals, approximately 30 days apart, where the instruments are designed to measure family functioning fulfillment, marital satisfaction, and mood. Data was analyzed using Chi-Square's, Independent t-tests, and ANOVA'S to look for relationships among the variables as well as differences in time one and time two measurements. The results suggested that a Solution Focused Family Checkup is effective in helping families make desired changes in areas of tasks and functions that maintain efficacy at a 30 day follow-up interval, and that some significant changes may occur in the marital dyadic relationship as well. The results also suggested that the more symptomatic the family the more likely they were to not seek therapy due to the symptomatic behaviors and the psychological stigma's associated with seeking professional assistance. Ecological issues related to seeking therapy did not rate statistical significance. However, in all cases the briefer the therapy and the affordability of assistance were the most important choices in ecological information. GS




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